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Australia History

 






History






The first groups of people that inhabited Australia (approximately 50.000 years ago) arrived from the southeast of Asia, but it cannot be defined accurately if they conformed a homogeneous racial group in the moment of their arrival.




These called towns "aboriginal" for the Europeans, developed more than 260 languages, but they had common features, as being recolectores and hunters. The "band" was their economic unit and of basic relationship, this unit (of varied size and composition) was responsible of the use of the earth and have a quickly responded to the ecological and social alterations. The fundamental social unit was the family; each family worked as a self-sufficient group and they cooked and ate in a separate way inside the band.




From the XII century, the cartographers and Portuguese navigators debated the question of the existence of a terra "incognito australis." During the XVII century, the near islands to Australia as Tasmania, Papua, Aotearoa and Java, were sighted by Spanish navigators and then for Dutch. However, these European powers were not interested in the new territories. It was after the XVIII century, after the three trips carried out by the British "James Cook" that began the colonization of Australia.




In 1788 the first British arrived and they established a penitentiary colony in "Botany Bay." Although the international and British legislation of the time consecrated the rights from the aboriginal to these territories, the colonists took possession of the richest lands for cultivation and shepherding, occupied by the native towns, and to obtain manpower slave.



These lands were populated then of livestock to supply the great English textile industry of abundant materials and to their manpower of foods of low cost. 80% of the aboriginal died because of the wars for the control of the earth. The "genocide" was the solution applied to the "aboriginal problem". whole Families were poisoned and others were displaced from their lands to the force and taken to reservations administered by the Britons.



In 1830, the prisoners that went to Australia were more than 58.000, in the big part, they are thieves, seafaring deserters and Irish opponents that had to work for the European landow










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